Burping is a natural ejection of gases through the mouth from the gut. Most of the time it is considered as a normal process and not a cause for concern, but sometimes it becomes excessive, showing something is wrong in the body. Burping may be quite embarrassing if it happens day in and day out. The person experiencing excessive burping might feel in a difficult situation because you can’t control burping a lot, it’s a natural function. However, there are many ways to control this problem. (more…)
It is exhausting to be feeling tired all the time, especially if you do not know why you are tired in the first place. Tiredness is not a unique thing; we all feel exhausted after working hard, but being tired even after just waking up in the morning after a good night’s sleep is not normal at all. It could mean that there are underlying problems, either physical or psychological.
Why am I so tired? If you are always asking this question, then you may have other problems because it is not normal to be tired all the time. (more…)
What is a cyst?
Before you can understand what is a cyst created for, it is important to keep in mind that while most structures and body parts in humans are commonly associated with certain functions or purposes, this is not necessarily the case. A cyst, defined as a growth that is covered by a membrane, tends to manifest itself on top of an organ, or fill the gap that exists between skin tissues and muscle. In a general sense, they are considered benign (or harmless) and they stay pretty isolated. Cysts are characterized by infected fluids, semi-solid substances (e.g. sebum) or simply air that fills the structure.
To better appreciate what is a cyst produced for, it has been noted that its existence could be linked to a defect during fetal development or a disorder, but it is also acknowledged that there are some unknown circumstances that could lead to the growth of a cyst. It is not uncommon to find a sebaceous cyst (small and hard form of cyst) deposited under the wrist or forearm. If it is in the wrist, it could be some kind of ganglion cyst. Other common areas where cysts could be located are on top of the vocal cords, under the scalp or face.
Are cysts harmful?
While a cyst is generally considered to be harmless or non-cancerous, it could inflict extreme pain. During World War II, soldiers who were assigned as jeep drivers often complained about painful “blisters” around the tailbone area. Further examinations from doctors revealed that such reported pain was more likely related to a cyst generated by ingrown hairs near the coccyx. The technical term to describe it is a pilonital cyst, originated from Greek, which means ‘hairy nest’. The high risk group for this particular kind of condition includes people who pursue less active lifestyles, people with obesity, or simply people who possess less lower back hair.
Suggestions for cysts examination and treatments
When the cyst does not drain itself off, you may need a surgical intervention to remove it.
As mentioned earlier, cysts can deposit themselves onto a wide variety of body organs. While it is thought of being innocent and not harmful in nature, its removal may be necessary to avoid further problems. Take for example a cyst that grows on the ovary. It is not malignant in nature, but if its growth continues uninhibited, it can turn into a large mass over time and cause pain sensation in the abdomen.
In suspected cases of malignant cysts, a needle aspiration procedure is often called in for further examination. A sample of fluids or other materials will be extracted to verify infection and any unintended cell growth. Unless it is absolutely necessary, prescription antibiotics and pain killers are dispensed, rather than the surgery option.
Granted, the existence of a sebaceous cyst under the skin would not look good on you. However, from a medical perspective, it is not required that you remove it. In the case of most severe cysts, treatments may cover lancing, and it is to be followed up with sterile bandages and antibiotics. Severe cysts would have to be drained off completely, if you don’t want to worry about secondary infections.
Eye pain can come in different forms, such as aching, burning, throbbing or stabbing. This can occur in the eye or around it. Tiredness and discomfort around the eyes is not cause for alarm. Most often, eye pain such as this can be rectified as it could be due to a muscle imbalance or needing a new pair of spectacles. However, persistent pain in the eyes should not be ignored and should be taken extremely seriously. This is because eye pain is often a cause of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, any pain in eyes should be attended to by a specialist ophthalmologist.
Types and Causes of Eye Pain
There are two categories of pain in the eyes. These are ‘ocular pain’ and ‘orbital pain’. Ocular pain occurs on the surface of the eye. This can be in the form of a burning sensation, grittiness, scratchiness, etc. Conjunctivitis is one of the most common ocular eye problems. It causes the membrane lining of the eyelids to become inflamed. Conjunctivitis can be caused by viruses, allergies, diseases, Chlamydia and fungi. A viral infection of the conjunctiva is referred to as “pink eye” and needs to be treated with proper medication.
In some cases, pain in eyes can be caused by abrasions. Scratching and overuse of contact lenses can cause abrasions that cause pain in the eyes. In addition, exposure to certain chemical substances and flash burns can also cause pain in the eyes. Another reason for ocular eye pain is a sty. A sty causes a lump on the eyelid that occurs due to a blocked oil gland. This can cause extreme pain in the eyes.
Orbital pain can be described as pain deep in the eyes. Orbital pain is most often associated with an eye disease. Glaucoma is one of the main causes of such eye pain. Glaucoma is caused by an increase in eye pressure that, if left untreated, can impair the vision. In addition to glaucoma, migraine, iritis, optic neuritis, and sinusitis are also some of the conditions that can cause orbital pain.
Symptoms of Eye Pain
Pain in eye will differ from person to person and also vary according to the factors causing it. For example, individuals who have glaucoma will feel stabbing pain in eye, nausea, vomiting, headaches and decreased vision. Conjunctivitis will cause pain in the eyes and discharge. Blepharitis, an inflammation of the eyelid, will cause a sensation of grit in the eyes. Painful, red eyes sometimes accompanied with decreased vision are a symptom of iritis. In addition, certain conditions can cause sensitivity to light, double vision, pain with eye movement and severe headaches accompanying the pain in the eyes.
Any of the abovementioned symptoms will require medical attention. Therefore, if pain in eye is experienced, it is advisable to obtain an appointment with an ophthalmologist for an eye examination. Certain conditions such as eye pain caused by burns, pain in the eyes related to traumatic events such as accidents or eye pain with loss of vision need emergency medical care.
When pain in the eyes is experienced, an ophthalmologist will evaluate a patient with a physical examination and history of the condition. Questions will include characteristics, location and duration of the pain among others. In addition, patients will be questioned on any medications taken, allergies, family history, etc. The physical examination will consist of checking the vision, surrounding tissues, peripheral vision, as well as the pupil’s reaction to light. Medication and treatment will depend on the results of these examinations.
Medication for Pain in the Eyes
The ophthalmologist will prescribe medication once the examination is conducted and the results are obtained. Medication will vary according to the condition of the patient and the severity of the problem; therefore, medication should not be taken without a prescription. For example, antibiotic eye drops and eye ointments will be prescribed for patients suffering with conjunctivitis, corneal abrasions and ulcerations. Those with chemical burns will be prescribed medication depending on the severity of the burns. Glaucoma medication will begin with eye drops and will proceed to intravenous and tablet medication. Patients suffering from migraine headaches will be prescribed pain relief medication, as well as migraine medication.
Preventing Pain in the Eyes
It is difficult to prevent accidents. However, certain problems concerning pain in the eyes can be prevented if proper measures are taken. For example, wearing eye protection when working with power tools, playing sports and mowing lawns will help protect the eyes form any damage that can be caused. Parents should supervise children’s movements and play equipment to avoid any eye injuries that could be caused by their toys. Reading safety instructions and abiding by them is vital when handling potent chemicals. People who wear contact lenses should ensure that their eyes are constantly moist and should follow their doctor’s instructions on how to wear them. These methods will help to ensure that the possibility of eye pain related to infections and accidents is decreased.
Loss of vision is devastating. Therefore, it is necessary to pay strict attention to any pain in the eyes that causes discomfort. Individuals are advised not to wait until there is stabbing pain in their eye before visiting an ophthalmologist. Timely treatment and medication is necessary to protect the eyes from loss of vision.
Question: If a person has developed lung cancer stage 4, what would be the remaining life expectancy?
This is probably one of the most asked questions about lung cancer. And it is really not unexpected. According to medical statistics, close to half of the total lung cancer patients are already in stage 4 by the time they are diagnosed.
Understanding Stage 4 Lung Cancer Life Expectancy
A number of variables can come into play when the subject is studied. One or more of the following factors would have to be considered:
- age factors — younger patients are perceived to be able to last longer than their older counterparts with lung cancer
- sex factors — female patients seem to be blessed with a longer lifespan regardless of the stage of the lung cancer
- overall wellbeing factor — your general health condition at the time of diagnosis is an indicator of how long you could carry on with lung cancer, and also is an effective indicator to gauging your ability to withstand cancer treatments
- your response to cancer treatment — cancer treatments like radiation therapy, targeted therapies, and chemotherapy all associated with their respective side effects, and different people may react differently to them. If you do not show severely adverse reactions to the various cancer treatments that are supposed to extend survival, your chance of a longer life expectancy could be significantly enhanced
- other health situations that you are currently experiencing — certain disorders like emphysema could greatly reduce lung cancer stage 4 life expectancy
- complications derived from lung cancer — other complications could develop (e.g. blood clots) and your chance of longer stage 4 lung cancer survival could be significantly curtailed.
Statistics on Stage 4 Lung Cancer Life Expectancy
A key point I’d like to make here is that the result of any statistics compiled may not necessarily be applicable to all. It is just as important to take note of the fact that sometimes statistics can be outdated. For example, the last available statistics on lung cancer are dated back in 2005. As technology (and correspondingly, treatment) continues to improve, such statistics may not necessarily reflect the current situation in the medical field.
Back to our statistics. The median number for stage 4 lung cancer life expectancy is just about 8 months. The median value is used to gauge the most common duration at the 50% mark (i.e. 50% of patients survive and the other 50% did not make it). The 5-year survival rate (i.e. the percentage of patients who are deemed to survive for another five years after diagnosis) reads a measly 10%.
While we all know that stage 4 lung cancer is not usually curable, the truth of the matter is that it is definitely treatable. The chances of survival can be improved with early treatment, but, more importantly, these treatments can bring about the much needed relief from the symptoms as well. At the time of writing, there have been some promising treatments that are being evaluated by medical experts. It is with this hope that we can extend the life expectancy of stage 4 cancer in the not too distant future.
Sty in Eyes
While nobody likes the idea of a sty (another spelling: stye) appearing, it is actually considered harmless. A sty in eye (also known as hordeolum) refers to a small bump that sometimes manifests itself on the inside or outside of the eyelid.
It is the result of a blockage on an eyelid oil gland or an eyelash follicle. This clog is usually caused by bacteria, debris or excessive oil. Styes could also result from a complication derived from blepharitis, and stress is believed to be another factor as well.
The common symptoms related to stye are:
- watery eyes
- itching and
You will have the look of a bruised eye and it is usually sensitive to light. A reddish bump on top of your eyelid is also another common observation.
When the stye gets progressively worse, an internal hordeolum is the condition that describes it. Pus deposit will be noticed in the center of the stye, giving that yellowish spot that resembles a pimple. If you experience pain, it is likely that it has ruptured with the pus drained, which is a sign of healing.
Invariably, a clogged eyelid gland is the single biggest reason for sty in eye. In chronic blepharitis sufferers, bacteria are considered the main culprit: they build up a colony and infect the glands, rendering you susceptible to developing styes. Eye makeup can only contribute to sty in eye – more so if you are in the habit of sharing makeup with others. In addition, excessive eye makeup could also be a prime suspect for a stye to develop. Others attribute their styes to the build up of stress.
Stye in Eye Treatment:
Due to the unsightly appearance associated with styes, most would want to get of them as soon as possible. Here are some sty in eye treatments you can take to speed up your recovery:
Apply a warm wash cloth on top of your eyelid for about 10 minutes. Repeat the same process 4 times every day.
Apply gentle massage to the affected area.
Use eye drops:
Antibiotic ointments or medicated eye drops could heal the infection. Consult an eye specialist to find out which is best given your situation.
Without an appropriate sty in eye treatment, a stye would very likely turn into a chalazion. A chalazion refers to a condition where a clogged oil gland becomes infected. Inflammation and pain can invariably follow the infection, accompanied by a hard lump or bump on the eyelid. Recommendations from eye doctors are usually lancing of the chalazion to help drain the pus, or possibly a steroid injection to bring down the swelling.
- Resist the temptation to pop or squeeze a stye; a better option is to allow the stye to drain on its own terms and in its own time. Popping the stye could lead to a severe eye infection.
- Seek medical help when your stye is persistent; if it remains even after applying warm compresses.
- To rule out the likelihood of infection, minimize the use of eye makeup or simply avoid contact lenses until complete recovery of the stye.
Walking pneumonia is also commonly known as ‘atypical pneumonia’ and is a medical condition wherein the patient does not need hospitalization. Unlike common pneumonia, a walking pneumonia patient can move around quite easily even when suffering from this condition.
This medical condition is caused by an organic infection called mycoplasma pneumonia, caused by such things as viruses, bacteria and chemical substances.
Walking Pneumonia Symptoms:
There may not be any noticeable symptoms in the initial stages of walking pneumonia, but as time passes patients may experience the following symptoms:
- lethargy or a sudden decrease in the level of physical energy
- cold which gets worse as time passes; the severity of the cold will differentiate walking pneumonia from a common cold
- chills (commonly associated with pneumonia of any kind)
- mild to severe headache with fever accompanied with throat problems (sore throat due to ongoing bouts of coughing)
- recurring runny nose
- pain in other parts of the body such as in the abdomen, eyes, ears, chest and muscles
- shallow and fast breathing due to being easily tired
These prominent symptoms will occur 1 to 3 weeks after the initial infection. Symptoms of walking pneumonia in adults are just like those in children.
Walking Pneumonia Treatments:
If you are experiencing the above symptoms, you should immediately consult your doctor. Though walking pneumonia will not make you bed-ridden or hospitalized, it can still be a risky condition, especially if it becomes severe.
Walking pneumonia is treated with antibiotics and the dosage will depend on the severity of the condition and the diagnosis of the doctor. If the patient is quite mobile and his condition is not worsening, then antibiotic pills will be sufficient. If the condition gets worse, then the doctor may opt to use intravenous antibiotics.
Walking pneumonia is a contagious disease; it can spread from one person to another if they are in close contact with each other. It can spread through the air too; when the patient sneezes, coughs, laughs or talks.
If you are found to be suffering from walking pneumonia, do follow the exact prescription from your doctor. Your condition may get worse if you do not pay proper attention to your treatment regimen.
It is advisable to wear a surgical mask, especially when going to crowded places. Do not be embarrassed; it is better to avoid passing on your disease. Better yet, avoid going out in places where there will be a lot of people as much as possible.
Avoid oily food and other foods that the doctor will advise you to avoid.
As much as possible, separate your eating utensils from the rest of the family’s utensils. This is to prevent the spread of the disease in your household.
Live healthily and take extra care in being clean and eating foods that contain much needed nutrients for the body, in order to prevent getting sick at all.
Question: What is a normal blood sugar level? What is considered a critical blood sugar level? And under what circumstances would a blood sugar range constitutes a real emergency?
Even as an individual, blood sugar measurements are to be taken under different circumstances for it to become truly meaningful. Let’s start with the so-called fasting blood sugar (or blood glucose) levels. This is measured usually 6 to 8 hours after the last meal. Naturally the best time to conduct this measurement is obviously before your breakfast in the morning; and a normal blood sugar level would fall somewhere within 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter range.
During your first meal , blood sugar is understood to have risen after your first gulp. Assuming you have stayed healthy and responsible in your choice and portion of your breakfast, the reading for blood suger lever would not exceed a 135 to 140 milligrams per deciliter range. So I hope that gives you an indication of where a fairly normal range of blood sugar lies (it should not swing wildly), across a typical day.
Normal Blood Sugar Level, Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia
Let us now switch our attention to diabetic patients. There are low blood sugar levels (otherwise also called hypoglycemia), and then there are elevated blood sugar levels (also known as hyperglycemia).
In the case of hypoglycemia, when the blood sugar range falls to a region of approximately 60 or 65 milligrams per deciliter range, symptoms would very likely start to set in; these can be a suspicion of hunger, maybe some shakiness, or perhaps a sense of desire or urge (accompanied by pounding heart) and if they get to eat something, it blows up straight away. But should the blood sugar level have a chance to drop beyond 50 and go further down to as low as 40, or 30, or even 20, the patient would suffer a progressive loss of mental capability and function and he or she will eventually be rendered unconscious, and seizure starts to set in. When this happens, it sure is very dangerous and the victim should be treated as a medical emergency.
On the flip side, when blood suger lever is anything between 180 to 200(or even more), then even an overworked kidney would not be able to handle the load to reabsorb the glucose from the blood stream and excessive glucose in the blood has to be passed into the urine. To further perpetuate this situation, let’s say the sugar level gets way up high, say in the 400s or even 500s range, we will start to notice some fundamental changes in mental processing at some odd times of the day. If this situation is not given enough medical attention, a prolonged duration means that a severe and irreversible change in mental process can be expected.
So I hope it is clear to you now why our blood sugar level has to be kept at an optimal range. Overly low and exceedingly high blood sugar levels are both detrimental to our mental processing capability.
Some shingles patients may feel that they are experiencing flu-like symptoms and this is normal. Such symptoms—nausea, fever, headache, and chills—are common characteristics of the Shingles prodromal stage (prodromal stage describes the types of symptoms that emerge prior to the appearance of rash). This leads us to the question, “What is shingles?” (more…)